คาสิโนออนไลน์ ต่างประเทศ_แจกเครดิตฟรี 1000_ฟุตบอล

CHAPTER 408

OF THE

REVISED STATUTES, 1989

amended 1995-96, c. 13, s. 85


NOTE - This electronic version of this statute is provided by the Office of the Legislative Counsel for your convenience and personal use only and may not be copied for the purpose of resale in this or any other form. Formatting of this electronic version may differ from the official, printed version. Where accuracy is critical, please consult official sources.

An Act for Codifying the Law
Relating to the Sale of Goods

Short title

1 This Act may be cited as the Sale of Goods Act. R.S., c. 408, s. 1.

INTERPRETATION

Interpretation

2 In this Act,

(a) "action" includes counterclaim and set-off;

(b) "buyer" means a person who buys or agrees to buy goods;

(c) "contract of sale" includes an agreement to sell as well as a sale;

(d) "delivery" means voluntary transfer of possession from one person to another;

(e) "document of title to goods" has the same meaning as in the Factors Act;

(f) "fault" means wrongful act or default;

(g) "future goods" means goods to be manufactured or acquired by the seller after the making of the contract of sale;

(h) "goods" includes all chattels personal other than things in action and money and includes emblements, industrial growing crops and things attached to or forming part of the land that are agreed to be severed before sale or under the contract of sale;

(i) "plaintiff" includes a defendant counterclaiming;

(j) "property" means the general property in goods, and not merely a special property;

(k) "quality of goods" includes their state or condition;

(l) "sale" includes a bargain and sale as well as a sale and delivery;

(m) "seller" means a person who sells or agrees to sell goods;

(n) "specific goods" means goods identified and agreed upon at the time a contract of sale is made;

(o) "warranty" means an agreement with reference to goods which are the subject of a contract of sale, but collateral to the main purpose of such contract, the breach of which gives rise to a claim for damages, but not a right to reject the goods and treat the contract as repudiated. R.S., c. 408, s. 2.

Deeming provisions

3 (1) A thing is deemed to be done in good faith within the meaning of this Act when it is in fact done honestly, whether it be done negligently or not.

(2) A person is deemed to be insolvent within the meaning of this Act who either has ceased to pay his debts in the ordinary course of business or cannot pay his debts as they become due.

(3) Goods are in a deliverable state within the meaning of this Act when they are in such a state that the buyer would, under the contract, be bound to take delivery of them. R.S., c. 408, s. 3.

PART I

FORMATION OF THE CONTRACT

CONTRACT OF SALE

Further interpretive provisions

4 (1) A contract of sale of goods is a contract whereby the seller transfers, or agrees to transfer, the property in goods to the buyer for a money consideration, called the "price", and there may be a contract of sale between one part owner and another.

(2) A contract of sale may be absolute or conditional.

(3) Where, under a contract of sale, the property in the goods is transferred from the seller to the buyer, the contract is called a "sale", but where the transfer of the property in the goods is to take place at a future time, or subject to some condition thereafter to be fulfilled, the contract is called an "agreement to sell".

(4) An agreement to sell becomes a sale when the time elapses, or the conditions are fulfilled subject to which the property in the goods is to be transferred. R.S., c. 408, s. 4.

Laws governing capacity to buy and sell

5 (1) In this Section, "necessaries" means goods suitable to the condition in life of such infant or minor or other person, and to his actual requirements at the time of the sale and delivery.

(2) Capacity to buy and sell is regulated by the general law concerning capacity to contract and to transfer and acquire property, provided that where necessaries are sold and delivered to an infant or minor, or to a person who by reason of mental incapacity or drunkenness is incompetent to contract, he must pay a reasonable price therefor. R.S., c. 408, s. 5.

FORMALITIES OF THE CONTRACT

Contract may be written or by parole or implied

6 Subject to this Act and to any statute in that behalf, a contract of sale may be made in writing, either with or without seal, by word of mouth, partly in writing and partly by word of mouth or may be implied from the conduct of the parties, provided that nothing in this Section shall affect the law relating to corporations. R.S., c. 408, s. 6.

Condition to enforce contract for $40 or more

7 (1) A contract for the sale of any goods of the value of forty dollars or upwards shall not be enforceable by action unless the buyer shall accept part of the goods so sold, and actually receive the same, or give something in earnest to bind the contract, or in part payment, or unless some note or memorandum in writing of the contract be made and signed by the party to be charged, or his agent in that behalf.

(2) This Section applies to every such contract notwithstanding that the goods may be intended to be delivered at some future time, or may not at the time of such contract be actually made, procured or provided, or fit or ready for delivery, or some act may be requisite for the making or completing thereof or rendering the same fit for delivery.

(3) There is an acceptance of goods, within the meaning of this Section, when the buyer does any act in relation to the goods which recognizes a pre-existing contract of sale, whether there be an acceptance in performance of the contract or not. R.S., c. 408, s. 7.

SUBJECT-MATTER OF CONTRACT

Existing or future goods

8 (1) The goods that form the subject of a contract of sale may be either existing goods, owned or possessed by the seller, or goods to be manufactured or acquired by the seller after the making of the contract of sale, in this Act called "future goods".

(2) There may be a contract for the sale of goods the acquisition of which by the seller depends upon a contingency which may or may not happen.

(3) Where, by a contract of sale, the seller purports to effect a present sale of future goods, the contract operates as an agreement to sell the goods. R.S., c. 408, s. 8.

Specific goods perished at time of contract

9 Where there is a contract for the sale of specific goods, and the goods without the knowledge of the seller have perished at the time when the contract is made, the contract is void. R.S., c. 408, s. 9.

Specific goods perished before risk passes

10 Where there is an agreement to sell specific goods, and subsequently the goods without any fault on the part of the seller or buyer perish before the risk passes to the buyer, the agreement is thereby avoided. R.S., c. 408, s. 10.

THE PRICE

Fixing of price

11 (1) The price in a contract of sale may be fixed by the contract, may be left to be fixed in manner thereby agreed or may be determined by the course of dealing between the parties.

(2) Where the price is not determined in accordance with the foregoing provisions the buyer must pay a reasonable price and what is a reasonable price is a question of fact dependent on the circumstances of each particular case. R.S., c. 408, s. 11.

Valuation

12 (1) Where there is an agreement to sell goods on the terms that the price is to be fixed by the valuation of a third party, and such third party cannot or does not make such valuation, the agreement is avoided, provided that, if the goods or any part thereof have been delivered to and appropriated by the buyer, the buyer must pay a reasonable price therefor.

(2) Where such third party is prevented from making the valuation by the fault of the seller or buyer, the party not in fault may maintain an action for damages against the party in fault. R.S., c. 408, s. 12.

CONDITIONS AND WARRANTIES

Time as essence of contract

13 (1) Unless a different intention appears from the terms of the contract, stipulations as to time of payment are not deemed to be of the essence of a contract of sale, and whether any other stipulation as to time is of the essence of the contract, or not, depends on the terms of the contract.

(2) In a contract of sale, "month" means prima facie a calendar month. R.S., c. 408, s. 13.

Treatment by buyer of breach of condition by seller

14 (1) Where a contract of sale is subject to any condition to be fulfilled by the seller, the buyer may waive the condition or may elect to treat the breach of such condition as a breach of warranty and not as a ground for treating the contract as repudiated.

(2) Whether a stipulation in a contract of sale is a condition, the breach of which may give rise to a right to treat the contract as repudiated, or a warranty, the breach of which may give rise to a claim for damages, but not to a right to reject the goods and treat the contract as repudiated, depends in each case on the construction of the contract and a stipulation may be a condition, though called a warranty in the contract.

(3) Where a contract of sale is not severable, and the buyer has accepted the goods, or part thereof, or where the contract is for specific goods the property in which has passed to the buyer, the breach of any condition to be fulfilled by the seller can only be treated as a breach of warranty, and not as ground for rejecting the goods and treating the contract as repudiated unless there be a term of the contract, express or implied, to that effect.

(4) Nothing in this Section shall affect the case of any condition or warranty, fulfilment of which is excused by law by reason of impossibility or otherwise. R.S., c. 408, s. 14.

Implied condition and warranties

15 In a contract of sale, unless the circumstances of the contract are such as to show a different intention, there is

(a) an implied condition on the part of the seller that, in the case of a sale, the seller has a right to sell the goods, and that, in the case of an agreement to sell, the seller will have a right to sell the goods at the time when the property is to pass;

(b) an implied warranty that the buyer shall have and enjoy quiet possession of the goods;

(c) an implied warranty that the goods shall be free from any charge or encumbrance in favour of any third party, not declared or known to the buyer before or at the time when the contract is made. R.S., c. 408, s. 15; revision corrected 1998.

Goods correspond with description

16 Where there is a contract for the sale of goods by description, there is an implied condition that the goods shall correspond with the description and if the sale be by sample as well as by description, it is not sufficient that the bulk of the goods corresponds with the sample if the goods do not also correspond with the description. R.S., c. 408, s. 16.

Quality or fitness for particular purpose

17 Subject to this Act and any statute in that behalf, there is no implied warranty or condition as to the quality or fitness, for any particular purpose, of goods supplied under a contract of sale, except as follows:

(a) where the buyer, expressly or by implication, makes known to the seller the particular purpose for which the goods are required, so as to show that the buyer relies on the sellers skill or judgement and the goods are of a description that it is in the course of the sellers business to supply, whether he be the manufacturer or not, there is an implied condition that the goods shall be reasonably fit for such purpose, provided that, in the case of a contract for the sale of a specified article under its patent or other trade-name, there is no implied condition as to its fitness for any particular purpose;

(b) where goods are bought by description from a seller who deals in goods of that description, whether he be the manufacturer or not, there is an implied condition that the goods shall be of merchantable quality, provided that, if the buyer has examined the goods, there shall be no implied condition as regards defects which such examination ought to have revealed;

(c) an implied warranty or condition as to quality or fitness for a particular purpose may be annexed by the usage of trade;

(d) an express warranty or condition does not negative a warranty or condition implied by this Act, unless inconsistent therewith. R.S., c. 408, s. 17.

SALE BY SAMPLE

Definition of sale by sample

18 (1) A contract of sale is a contract for sale by sample where there is a term in the contract, express or implied, to that effect.

(2) In the case of a contract for sale by sample, there is an implied condition that

(a) the bulk shall correspond with the sample in quality;

(b) the buyer shall have a reasonable opportunity of comparing the bulk with the sample; and

(c) the goods shall be free from any defect, rendering them unmerchantable, that would not be apparent on reasonable examination of the sample. R.S., c. 408, s. 18.

PART II

EFFECTS OF THE CONTRACT

TRANSFER OF PROPERTY AS BETWEEN

SELLER AND BUYER

Transfer of property in unascertained goods

19 Where there is a contract for the sale of unascertained goods, no property in the goods is transferred to the buyer unless and until the goods are ascertained. R.S., c. 408, s. 19.

Transfer of property in specific or ascertained goods

20 (1) Where there is a contract for the sale of specific or ascertained goods, the property in them is transferred to the buyer at such time as the parties to the contract intend it to be transferred.

(2) For the purpose of ascertaining the intention of the parties, regard shall be had to the terms of the contract, the conduct of the parties and the circumstances of the case. R.S., c. 408, s. 20.

Rules for ascertaining intention

21 Unless a different intention appears, the following are rules for ascertaining the intention of the parties as to the time at which the property in the goods is to pass to the buyer:

R.S., c. 408, s. 21.

Reservation of right of disposal in seller

22 (1) Where there is a contract for the sale of specific goods, or where goods are subsequently appropriated to the contract, the seller may, by the terms of the contract or appropriation, reserve the right of disposal of the goods until certain conditions are fulfilled and in such case, notwithstanding the delivery of the goods to the buyer or to a carrier or other bailee for the purpose of transmission to the buyer, the property in the goods does not pass to the buyer until the conditions imposed by the seller are fulfilled.

(2) Where goods are shipped, and by the bill of lading the goods are deliverable to the order of the seller or the sellers agent, the seller is prima facie deemed to reserve the right of disposal.

(3) Where the seller of goods draws on the buyer for the price and transmits the bill of exchange and bill of lading to the buyer together to secure acceptance or payment of the bill of exchange, the buyer is bound to return the bill of lading if he does not honour the bill of exchange, and if the buyer wrongfully retains the bill of lading, the property in the goods does not pass to the buyer. R.S., c. 408, s. 22.

Risk of seller versus risk of buyer

23 Unless otherwise agreed, the goods remain at the sellers risk until the property therein is transferred to the buyer, but when the property therein is transferred to the buyer, the goods are at the buyers risk, whether delivery has been made or not, provided that, where delivery has been delayed through the fault of either buyer or seller, the goods are at the risk of the party in fault as regards any loss which might not have occurred but for such fault, and provided also that nothing in this Section shall affect the duties or liabilities of either seller or buyer as a bailee of the goods of the other party. R.S., c. 408, s. 23.

TRANSFER OF TITLE

Title to goods sold without consent of owner

24 Subject to this Act, where goods are sold by a person who is not the owner thereof and who does not sell them under the authority or with the consent of the owner, the buyer acquires no better title to the goods than the seller had, unless the owner of the goods is by his conduct precluded from denying the sellers authority to sell. R.S., c. 408, s. 24.

Limitation on effect of Act

25 Nothing in this Act shall affect

(a) the Factors Act or any enactment enabling the apparent owner of goods to dispose of them as if he were the true owner thereof;

(b) the validity of any contract of sale under any special common law or statutory power of sale or under the order of a court of competent jurisdiction. R.S., c. 408, s. 25.

Acquisition by buyer of voidable title of seller

26 When the seller of goods has a voidable title thereto, but his title has not been avoided at the time of the sale, the buyer acquires a good title to the goods, provided the buyer buys them in good faith and without notice of the sellers defect of title. R.S., c. 408, s. 26.

Title to stolen goods and goods obtained by fraud

27 (1) Where goods have been stolen and the offender is prosecuted to conviction, the property in the goods so stolen revests in the person who was the owner of the goods, or his personal representative, notwithstanding any intermediate dealing with them.

(2) Notwithstanding any enactment to the contrary, where goods have been obtained by fraud or other wrongful means not amounting to theft, the property in such goods shall not revest in the person who was the owner of the goods, or his personal representative, by reason only of the conviction of the offender. R.S., c. 408, s. 27.

Goods resold by seller or buyer in possession

28 (1) In this Section, "mercantile agent" has the same meaning as in the Factors Act.

(2) Where a person having sold goods continues or is in possession of the goods, or of the documents of title to the goods, the delivery or transfer by that person, or by a mercantile agent acting for him, of the goods or documents of title, under any sale, pledge or other disposition thereof, to any person receiving the same in good faith and without notice of the previous sale, shall have the same effect as if the person making the delivery or transfer were expressly authorized by the owner of the goods to make the same.

(3) Where a person having bought or agreed to buy goods obtains, with the consent of the seller, possession of the goods or the documents of title to the goods, the delivery or transfer by that person or by a mercantile agent acting for him of the goods or documents of title, under any sale, pledge or other disposition thereof, to any person receiving the same in good faith and without notice of any lien or other right of the original seller in respect of the goods, shall have the same effect as if the person making the delivery or transfer were a mercantile agent in possession of the goods or documents of title with the consent of the owner. R.S., c. 408, s. 28.

PART III

PERFORMANCE OF THE CONTRACT

Duties of seller and buyer

29 It is the duty of the seller to deliver the goods and of the buyer to accept and pay for them, in accordance with the terms of the contract of sale. R.S., c. 408, s. 29.

Delivery and payment are concurrent conditions

30 Unless otherwise agreed, delivery of the goods and payment of the price are concurrent conditions, that is to say, the seller must be ready and willing to give possession of the goods to the buyer in exchange for the price, and the buyer must be ready and willing to pay the price in exchange for possession of the goods. R.S., c. 408, s. 30.

Sending and delivery

31 (1) Whether it is for the buyer to take possession of the goods, or for the seller to send them to the buyer, is a question depending in each case on the contract, express or implied, between the parties and apart from any such contract, express or implied, the place of delivery is the sellers place of business, if he has one, and if not, his residence, provided that if the contract be for the sale of specific goods, which to the knowledge of the parties when the contract is made are in some other place, then that place is the place of delivery.

(2) Where, pursuant to the contract of sale, the seller is bound to send the goods to the buyer, but no time for sending them is fixed, the seller is bound to send them within a reasonable time.

(3) Where the goods at the time of sale are in the possession of a third person, there is no delivery by seller to buyer unless and until such third person acknowledges to the buyer that he holds the goods on his behalf, provided that nothing in this Section shall affect the operation of the issue or transfer of any document of title to goods.

(4) Demand or tender of delivery may be treated as ineffectual unless made at a reasonable hour and what is a reasonable hour is a question of fact.

(5) Unless otherwise agreed, the expenses of and incidental to putting the goods into a deliverable state must be borne by the seller. R.S., c. 408, s. 31.

Delivery of different goods or different quantity

32 (1) Where the seller delivers to the buyer a quantity of goods less than the seller contracted to sell, the buyer may reject them, but if the buyer accepts the goods so delivered the buyer must pay for them at the contract rate.

(2) Where the seller delivers to the buyer a quantity of goods larger than the seller contracted to sell, the buyer may accept the goods included in the contract and reject the rest, or the buyer may reject the whole and, if the buyer accepts the whole of the goods so delivered, the buyer must pay for them at the contract rate.

(3) Where the seller delivers to the buyer the goods the seller contracted to sell, mixed with goods of a different description not included in the contract, the buyer may accept the goods that are in accordance with the contract and reject the rest, or the buyer may reject the whole.

(4) The provisions of this Section are subject to any usage of trade, special agreement or course of dealing between the parties. R.S., c. 408, s. 32.

Delivery by instalments

33 (1) Unless otherwise agreed, the buyer of goods is not bound to accept delivery thereof by instalments.

(2) Where there is a contract for the sale of goods to be delivered by stated instalments, that are to be separately paid for, and the seller makes defective deliveries in respect of one or more instalments, or the buyer neglects or refuses to take delivery of or pay for one or more instalments, it is a question, in each case depending on the terms of the contract and the circumstances of the case, whether the breach of contract is a repudiation of the whole contract or whether it is a severable breach giving rise to a claim for compensation but not to a right to treat the whole contract as repudiated. R.S., c. 408, s. 33.

Delivery to carrier

34 (1) Where, in pursuance of a contract of sale, the seller is authorized or required to send the goods to the buyer, delivery of goods to a carrier, whether named by the buyer or not, for the purpose of transmission to the buyer, is prima facie deemed to be a delivery of the goods to the buyer.

(2) Unless otherwise authorized by the buyer, the seller must make such contract with the carrier on behalf of the buyer as may be reasonable having regard to the nature of the goods and the other circumstances of the case and, if the seller omits so to do, and the goods are lost or damaged in course of transit, the buyer may decline to treat the delivery to the carrier as a delivery to himself, or may hold the seller responsible in damages.

(3) Unless otherwise agreed, where goods are sent by the seller to the buyer by a route involving sea, lake or river transit, under circumstances in which it is usual to insure, the seller must give such notice to the buyer as may enable the buyer to insure them during their sea, lake or river transit, and if the seller fails to do so, the goods shall be deemed to be at the sellers risk during such sea, lake or river transit. R.S., c. 408, s. 34.

Risk of deterioration in transit

35 Where the seller of goods agrees to deliver them at his own risk at a place other than that where they are when sold, the buyer must, nevertheless, unless otherwise agreed, take any risk of deterioration in the goods necessarily incident to the course of transit. R.S., c. 408, s. 35.

Opportunity to examine

36 (1) Where goods are delivered to the buyer that the buyer has not previously examined, the buyer is not deemed to have accepted them unless and until the buyer has had a reasonable opportunity of examining them for the purpose of ascertaining whether they are in conformity with the contract.

(2) Unless otherwise agreed, when the seller tenders delivery of the goods to the buyer, the seller is bound, on request to afford the buyer a reasonable opportunity of examining the goods for the purpose of ascertaining whether they are in conformity with the contract. R.S., c. 408, s. 36.

Deemed acceptance

37 The buyer is deemed to have accepted the goods when the buyer intimates to the seller that he has accepted them, or when the goods have been delivered to him, and the buyer does any act in relation to them, which is inconsistent with the ownership of the seller, or when, after the lapse of a reasonable time, the buyer retains the goods without intimating to the seller that he has rejected them. R.S., c. 408, s. 37.

Sufficient refusal to accept delivered goods

38 Unless otherwise agreed, where goods are delivered to the buyer and the buyer refuses to accept them, having the right so to do, the buyer is not bound to return them to the seller, but it is sufficient if the buyer intimates to the seller that he refuses to accept them. R.S., c. 408, s. 38.

Effect of refusal or failure to take delivery

39 When the seller is ready and willing to deliver the goods and requests the buyer to take delivery, and the buyer does not within a reasonable time after such request take delivery of the goods, the buyer is liable to the seller for any loss occasioned by his neglect or refusal to take delivery, and also for a reasonable charge for the care and custody of the goods provided that nothing in this Section shall affect the rights of the seller where the neglect or refusal of the buyer to take delivery amounts to a repudiation of the contract. R.S., c. 408, s. 39.

PART IV

RIGHTS OF UNPAID SELLER AGAINST THE GOODS

Deemed unpaid seller

40 (1) The seller of goods is deemed to be an unpaid seller within the meaning of this Act when

(a) the whole of the price has not been paid or tendered;

(b) a bill of exchange or other negotiable instrument has been received as conditional payment, and the condition on which it was received has not been fulfilled by reason of the dishonour of the instrument or otherwise.

(2) In this Part, "seller" includes any person who is in the position of a seller, as, for instance, an agent of the seller to whom the bill of lading has been indorsed or a consignor or agent who has himself paid, or is directly responsible for the price. R.S., c. 408, s. 40.

Rights of unpaid seller

41 (1) Subject to this Act and any statute in that behalf, notwithstanding that the property in the goods may have passed to the buyer, the unpaid seller of goods, as such, has, by implication of law,

(a) a lien on the goods or right to retain them for the price while he is in possession of them;

(b) in case of the insolvency of the buyer, a right of stopping the goods in transitu after he has parted with the possession of them;

(c) a right of resale as limited by this Act.

(2) Where the property in goods has not passed to the buyer, the unpaid seller has, in addition to his other remedies, a right of withholding delivery similar to and coextensive with his rights of lien and stoppage in transitu where the property has passed to the buyer. R.S., c. 408, s. 41.

UNPAID SELLERS LIEN

Lien of unpaid seller

42 (1) Subject to this Act, the unpaid seller of goods who is in possession of them is entitled to retain possession of them until payment or tender of the price in the following cases, namely:

(a) where the goods have been sold without any stipulation as to credit;

(b) where the goods have been sold on credit, but the terms of credit have expired;

(c) where the buyer becomes insolvent.

(2) The seller may exercise his right of lien, notwithstanding that the seller is in possession of the goods as agent or bailee for the buyer. R.S., c. 408, s. 42.

Exercise of lien after part delivery

43 Where an unpaid seller has made part delivery of the goods, he may exercise his right of lien or retention on the remainder, unless such part delivery has been made under such circumstances as to show an agreement to waive the lien or right of retention. R.S., c. 408, s. 43.

Loss of lien

44 (1) The unpaid seller of goods loses his lien or right of retention thereon

(a) when he delivers the goods to a carrier or other bailee for the purpose of transmission to the buyer without reserving the right of disposal of the goods;

(b) when the buyer or his agent lawfully obtains possession of the goods;

(c) by waiver thereof.

(2) The unpaid seller of goods, having a lien or right of retention thereon, does not lose his lien or right of retention by reason only that he has obtained judgment or decree for the price of the goods. R.S., c. 408, s. 44.

STOPPAGE IN TRANSITU

Right of stoppage in transitu

45 Subject to this Act, when the buyer of goods becomes insolvent, the unpaid seller who has parted with the possession of the goods has the right of stopping them in transitu, that is to say, he may resume possession of the goods as long as they are in course of transit and may retain them until payment or tender of the price. R.S., c. 408, s. 45.

Duration of transit

46 (1) Goods are deemed to be in course of transit from the time when they are delivered to a carrier by land or water, or other bailee for the purpose of transmission to the buyer, until the buyer, or his agent in that behalf, takes delivery of them from such carrier or other bailee.

(2) If the buyer or his agent in that behalf obtains delivery of the goods before their arrival at the appointed destination, the transit is at an end.

(3) If, after the arrival of the goods at the appointed destination, the carrier or other bailee acknowledges to the buyer, or his agent, that he holds the goods on his behalf, and continues in possession of them as bailee for the buyer or his agent, the transit is at an end and it is immaterial that a further destination for the goods may have been indicated by the buyer.

(4) If the goods are rejected by the buyer, and the carrier or other bailee continues in possession of them, the transit is not deemed to be at an end, even if the seller has refused to receive them back.

(5) When the goods are delivered to a ship chartered by the buyer, it is a question, depending on the circumstances of the particular case, whether they are in the possession of the master as a carrier or as agent of the buyer.

(6) Where the carrier or other bailee wrongfully refuses to deliver the goods to the buyer, or his agent in his behalf, the transit is deemed to be at an end.

(7) Where part delivery of the goods has been made to the buyer, or his agent in that behalf, the remainder of the goods may be stopped in transitu, unless such part delivery has been made under such circumstances as to show an agreement to give up possession of the whole of the goods. R.S., c. 408, s. 46.

Stoppage in transitu

47 (1) The unpaid seller may exercise his right of stoppage in transitu either by taking actual possession of the goods or by giving notice of his claim to the carrier or other bailee in whose possession the goods are and such notice may be given either to the person in actual possession of the goods or to his principal and, in the latter case, the notice, to be effectual, must be given at such time and under such circumstances that the principal, by the exercise of reasonable diligence, may communicate it to his servant or agent in time to prevent a delivery to the buyer.

(2) When notice of stoppage in transitu is given by the seller to the carrier, or other bailee in possession of the goods, he must re-deliver the goods to, or according to the directions of, the seller and the expenses of such re-delivery must be borne by the seller. R.S., c. 408, s. 47.

RESALE BY BUYER OR SELLER

Effect of disposition of goods by buyer

48 Subject to this Act, the unpaid sellers right of lien or retention or stoppage in transitu is not affected by any sale, or other disposition of the goods which the buyer may have made, unless the seller has assented thereto, provided that, where a document of title to goods has been lawfully transferred to any person as buyer or owner of the goods and that person transfers the document to a person who takes the document in good faith and for valuable consideration, then, if such last-mentioned transfer was by way of sale, the unpaid sellers right of lien or retention or stoppage in transitu is defeated, and if such last-mentioned transfer was by way of pledge or other disposition for value, the unpaid sellers right of lien or retention or stoppage in transitu can only be exercised subject to the rights of the transferee. R.S., c. 408, s. 48.

Effect of exercise of right of unpaid seller

49 (1) Subject to this Section, a contract of sale is not rescinded by the mere exercise by an unpaid seller of his right of lien or retention or stoppage in transitu.

(2) Where an unpaid seller, who has exercised his right of lien or retention or stoppage in transitu, resells the goods, the buyer acquires a good title thereto as against the original buyer.

(3) Where the goods are of a perishable nature or where the unpaid seller gives notice to the buyer of his intention to resell, and the buyer does not within a reasonable time pay or tender the price, the unpaid seller may resell the goods and recover from the original buyer damages for any loss occasioned by his breach of contract.

(4) Where the seller expressly reserves a right of resale in case the buyer should make default, and, on the buyer making default, resells the goods, the original contract of sale is thereby rescinded, but without prejudice to any claim the seller may have for damages. R.S., c. 408, s. 49.

PART V

ACTIONS FOR BREACH OF THE CONTRACT

REMEDIES OF THE SELLER

Action for price

50 (1) Where, under a contract of sale, the property in the goods has passed to the buyer, and the buyer wrongfully neglects or refuses to pay for the goods according to the terms of the contract, the seller may maintain an action against him for the price of the goods.

(2) Where, under a contract of sale, the price is payable on a day certain, irrespective of delivery, and the buyer wrongfully neglects or refuses to pay such price, the seller may maintain an action for the price although the property in the goods has not passed and the goods have not been appropriated to the contract. R.S., c. 408, s. 50.

Action for damages for non-acceptance

51 (1) Where the buyer wrongfully neglects or refuses to accept and pay for the goods, the seller may maintain an action against the buyer for damages for non-acceptance.

(2) The measure of damages is the estimated loss directly and naturally resulting, in the ordinary course of events, from the buyers breach of contract.

(3) Where there is an available market for the goods in question, the measure of damages is prima facie to be ascertained by the difference between the contract price and the market or current price at the time or times when the goods ought to have been accepted, or, if no time was fixed for acceptance, then at the time of the refusal to accept. R.S., c. 408, s. 51.

REMEDIES OF THE BUYER

Action for damages for non-delivery

52 (1) Where the seller wrongfully neglects or refuses to deliver the goods to the buyer, the buyer may maintain an action against the seller for damages for non-delivery.

(2) The measure of damages is the estimated loss directly and naturally resulting in the ordinary course of events from the sellers breach of contract.

(3) Where there is an available market for the goods in question, the measure of damages is prima facie to be ascertained by the difference between the contract price and the market or current price of the goods at the time or times when they ought to have been delivered, or, if no time was fixed, then at the time of the refusal to deliver. R.S., c. 408, s. 52.

Specific performance

53 (1) In any action for breach of contract to deliver specific or ascertained goods, the court may, if it think fit, on the application of the plaintiff, by its judgment or decree direct that the contract shall be performed specifically, without giving the defendant the option of retaining the goods on payment of damages.

(2) The judgment or decree may be unconditional, or upon such terms and conditions as to damages, payment of the price and otherwise, as to the court may seem just, and the application by the plaintiff may be made at any time before judgment or decree. R.S., c. 408, s. 53.

Remedy of buyer for breach of warranty

54 (1) Where there is a breach of warranty by the seller or where the buyer elects or is compelled to treat any breach of a condition on the part of the seller as a breach of warranty, the buyer is not by reason only of such breach of warranty entitled to reject the goods, but the buyer may

(a) set up against the seller the breach of warranty, in diminution or extinction of the price; or

(b) maintain an action against the seller for damages for the breach of warranty.

(2) The measure of damages for breach of warranty is the estimated loss directly and naturally resulting, in the ordinary course of events, from the breach of warranty.

(3) In the case of breach of warranty of quality, such loss is prima facie the difference between the value of the goods at the time of delivery to the buyer and the value they would have had if they had answered to the warranty.

(4) The fact that the buyer has set up the breach of warranty, in diminution or extinction of the price, does not prevent the buyer from maintaining an action for the same breach of warranty if he has suffered further damage. R.S., c. 408, s. 54.

Recovery of interest or special damages or money paid

55 Nothing in this Act shall affect the right of the buyer or the seller to recover interest or special damages in any case where, by law, interest or special damages may be recoverable, or to recover money paid where the consideration for the payment of it has failed. R.S., c. 408, s. 55.

PART VI

SUPPLEMENTARY

Varying or negativing an implication of law

56 Where any right, duty or liability would arise under a contract of sale by implication of law, it may be negatived or varied by express agreement, or by the course of dealing between the parties, or by usage, if the usage be such as to bind both parties to the contract. R.S., c. 408, s. 56.

Reasonable time is question of fact

57 Where, by this Act, any reference is made to a reasonable time, the question what is a reasonable time is a question of fact. R.S., c. 408, s. 57.

Enforcement of right or duty or liability under Act

58 Where any right, duty or liability is declared by this Act, it may, unless otherwise by this Act provided, be enforced by action. R.S., c. 408, s. 58.

Sale by auction

59 In the case of sale by auction,

(a) where goods are put up for sale by auction in lots, each lot is prima facie deemed to be the subject of a separate contract of sale;

(b) a sale by auction is complete when the auctioneer announces its completion by the fall of the hammer, or in other customary manner and, until such announcement is made, any bidder may retract his bid;

(c) where a sale by auction is not notified to be subject to a right to bid on behalf of the seller, it shall not be lawful for the seller to bid himself or to employ any person to bid at such sale or for the auctioneer knowingly to take any bid from the seller or any such person, and any sale contravening this rule may be treated as fraudulent by the buyer;

(d) a sale by auction may be notified to be subject to a reserved or upset price and a right to bid may also be reserved expressly by or on behalf of the seller;

(e) where a right to bid is expressly reserved, but not otherwise, the seller, or any one person on the sellers behalf, may bid at the auction. R.S., c. 408, s. 59.

Effect on existing law

60 (1) The rules of the common law, including the law merchant, save in so far as they are inconsistent with the express provisions of this Act, and in particular the rules relating to the law of principal and agent and the effect of fraud, misrepresentation, duress or coercion, mistake or other invalidating cause, shall continue to apply to contracts for the sale of goods.

(2) Nothing in this Act affects any enactment relating to personal property security or any enactment relating to the sale of goods that is not expressly repealed by Chapter 1 of the Acts of 1910.

(3) The provisions of this Act relating to contracts of sale do not apply to any transaction in the form of a contract of sale to the extent that the transaction is intended to operate as an agreement that creates or provides for an interest in goods to secure payment or performance of an obligation. R.S., c. 408, s. 60; 1995-96, c. 13, s. 85.

รวมเกมส์ รวมเกมส์


This page and its contents published by the Office of the Legislative Counsel, Nova Scotia House of Assembly, and © 1998 Crown in right of Nova Scotia. Created October 1, 1998. Send comments to รวมเกมส์legc.office@gov.ns.ca.